The Roland Garros, is the second of the Grand Slam tournaments in chronological order, held from mid-May to early June in Paris, France. It takes place in the Stade Roland Garros, a facility named after the French air force aviator of the same name in the First World War. The playing surface is red clay: it is the only Grand Slam tournament that takes place on this surface after the abandonment of green clay, since the US Open in 1978. The first edition was held in 1891 and has been held ever since annual; until 1924 it was reserved only for French tennis players, or members of a French tennis club. Since 1925 the event has been open to tennis players from all over the world. The first edition of the international tennis championship of France was held in Paris in 1891. It was organized by the Union des Sociétés Françaises des Sports Athlétiques on the courts of the Racing Club de France. The first tournament took place over a single day, in which only five players participated.
The Briton H. Briggs prevailed in the men's singles tournament, the only tournament held. Three participants met to contest the first women's tournament in 1897 where Adine Masson prevailed. The Roland Garros is played on clay, a playing surface that is characterized by higher bounces than grass, hard and synthetic courts. These specific characteristics have created a category of specialized athletes and challenged great champions at ease on faster terrain. For example Pete Sampras, winner of 14 singles Grand Slam tournaments, has never triumphed in Paris and like him other great tennis players such as John McEnroe and Jimmy Connors have not succeeded. On the contrary, it has been won by players such as Gustavo Kuerten, Juan Carlos Ferrero and the Italian Adriano Panatta, never first in other Grand Slam tournaments.