Published on the The Physician and sportsmedicine, the article Tennis-related adult maxillofacial trauma injuries gives an interesting overview on the topic concerning adult tennis players. Below you can read an abstract of the piece: "Objectives: Tennis participation continues to increase amongst adults across the United States.
The purpose of this study was to analyze trends in adult tennis-related facial injury epidemiology, demographics, diagnoses, and locations of injury. Materials and methods: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was evaluated for tennis-related facial injuries in adults from 2009 through 2018.
Number of injuries were extrapolated, and data were analyzed for age, sex, specific injury diagnoses, locations, and discharge disposition. Descriptive statistics were used to present and describe variables of interest. Chi-squared testing (χ2) was performed to compare categorical variables.
Results: During the study period, 342 tennis-related facial trauma ED visits were analyzed. Lacerations were the most common injury (45%), followed by contusions or abrasions (33.3%), concussions (11.7%), and fractures (8.5%).
The most common sites of injury were the face (47.4%) and head (27.2%) regio ns. Males accounted for 62.0% of injuries, while females accounted for the remaining 38.0%. Patients between 34-65 years-old accounted for 47.7% of all injuries, and athletes over 65 years-old had the highest rate of fractures (10.1%).
Conclusions: Facial trauma incurred secondary to tennis may follow patient-specific patterns. The incidence of tennis-related facial trauma is smaller compared to other sports, but the severity of such injuries remain a danger.
Facial protection and enforcement in tennis is virtually absent, and these findings strengthen the need to educate athletes, families, and physicians on injury awareness and prevention."
Effects of caffeine in women handball players
The study published in the International journal of sports physiology and performance, concerning the effects of caffeine in women handball players reveals interesting answers.
The study is titled: Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Physical Performance in Elite Women Handball Players: A Randomized, Controlled Study. Below is an abstract: "Purpose: To investigate the effects of acute caffeine (CAFF) intake on physical performance in elite women handball players.
Methods: A total of 15 elite women handball players participated in a randomized, double-blind study. In 2 different trials, participants ingested either a placebo (cellulose) or 3 mg of CAFF per kilogram of body mass (mg / kg bm) before undergoing a battery of neuromuscular tests consisting of handball throws, an isometric handgrip strength test, a countermovement jump , a 30-m sprint test (SV) and a modified version of the agility T test.
Then, participants performed a simulated handball game (2 × 20 min), and movement patterns were recorded with a local positioning system. Results: Compared with the placebo, CAFF increased ball velocity in all ball throws (P = .021-.044; effect size [ES] = 0.39-0.49), strength in isometric handgrip strength test (350.8 [41.2] vs 361.6 [46.1 ] N, P = .034; ES = 0.35), and countermovement-jump height (28.5 [5.5] vs 29.8 [5.5] cm; P = .006; ES = 0.22).
In addition, CAFF decreased running time in the SV (4.9 [0.2] vs 4.8 [0.3] s; P = .042; ES = -0.34). In the simulated game, CAFF increased the frequency of accelerations (18.1 [1.2] vs 18.8 [1.0] number / min; P = .044; ES = 0.54), decelerations (18.0 [1.2] vs 18.7 [1.0] number / min; P = .032; ES = 0.56), and body impacts (20  vs 22  impacts / min; P = .032; ES = 0.30).
However, postexercise surveys about self-reported feelings of performance indicate that players did not feel increased performance with CAFF. Conclusion: Preexercise ingestion of 3 mg / kg bm of CAFF improved ball-throwing velocity, jump, and sprint performance and the frequency of in-game accelerations and decelerations in elite women handball players."