Aquatic Activity-Related Craniofacial Injuries in USA


Aquatic Activity-Related Craniofacial Injuries in USA
Aquatic Activity-Related Craniofacial Injuries in USA

An interesting study, entitled: Aquatic Activity-Related Craniofacial Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Departments, 2010 to 2019, and published on the Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, in its interesting retrospect, he explains: "Aquatic activities are some of the most widely enjoyed sports and recreational activities in the United States.

This study aimed to analyze the risks and types of craniofacial injuries associated with various aquatic activities. We retrospectively analyzed aquatic activity-related craniofacial injuries between 2010 and 2019 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database.

Aquatic activities included swimming, diving, surfing, water skiing, and water tubing. Risks and types of craniofacial injuries were analyzed according to the types of aquatic activities, age. Among 48,112 patients with aquatic activity-related injuries, 9,529 (19.8%) had craniofacial injuries.

In decreasing order of frequency, the causes of craniofacial injuries were swimming (79.6%), diving (7.5%), surfing (5.9%), water skiing (3.6%), and water tubing (3.5%). The proportion of craniofacial injuries among all injuries was higher in males than in females (22.8 vs 16.3%, P <.001), and decreased with age: 27.7% in 0 to 5 years, 21.5% in 6 to 11 years, 20.5% in 12 to 17 years, and 15.2% in ≥18 years (P <.001).

Additionally, the proportion of craniofacial injuries was highest in diving (38.7%), and lowest in swimming (18.1%, P <.001). The male-to-female ratio in the proportion of patients with craniofacial injuries was highest in swimming at 1.42, and close to unity (0.97-1.13) in other activities.

The most common type of craniofacial injury was laceration (43.5%), followed by concussion / internal organ injury (38.9%), contusion / abrasion (11.3%), and fracture (3%). Among all craniofacial injuries, the proportion of craniofacial fractures was highest in water tubing (8.5%) and lowest in swimming (2.2%, P <.001).

Craniofacial injuries are a frequent cause of morbidity related to aquatic activities. Substantial variability exists in the risk and pattern of craniofacial injuries depending on the type of activity, age. These findings may aid in instituting educational programs and preventive measures against aquatic activity-related craniofacial injuries."