The study published in the International journal of sports physiology and performance, concerning the effects of caffeine in women handball players reveals interesting answers. The study is titled: Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Physical Performance in Elite Women Handball Players: A Randomized, Controlled Study.
Below is an abstract: "Purpose: To investigate the effects of acute caffeine (CAFF) intake on physical performance in elite women handball players. Methods: A total of 15 elite women handball players participated in a randomized, double-blind study.
In 2 different trials, participants ingested either a placebo (cellulose) or 3 mg of CAFF per kilogram of body mass (mg / kg bm) before undergoing a battery of neuromuscular tests consisting of handball throws, an isometric handgrip strength test, a countermovement jump , a 30-m sprint test (SV) and a modified version of the agility T test.
Then, participants performed a simulated handball game (2 × 20 min), and movement patterns were recorded with a local positioning system. Results: Compared with the placebo, CAFF increased ball velocity in all ball throws (P = .021-.044; effect size [ES] = 0.39-0.49), strength in isometric handgrip strength test (350.8 [41.2] vs 361.6 [46.1 ] N, P = .034; ES = 0.35), and countermovement-jump height (28.5 [5.5] vs 29.8 [5.5] cm; P = .006; ES = 0.22).
In addition, CAFF decreased running time in the SV (4.9 [0.2] vs 4.8 [0.3] s; P = .042; ES = -0.34). In the simulated game, CAFF increased the frequency of accelerations (18.1 [1.2] vs 18.8 [1.0] number / min; P = .044; ES = 0.54), decelerations (18.0 [1.2] vs 18.7 [1.0] number / min; P = .032; ES = 0.56), and body impacts (20  vs 22  impacts / min; P = .032; ES = 0.30).
However, postexercise surveys about self-reported feelings of performance indicate that players did not feel increased performance with CAFF. Conclusion: Preexercise ingestion of 3 mg / kg bm of CAFF improved ball-throwing velocity, jump, and sprint performance and the frequency of in-game accelerations and decelerations in elite women handball players."
Basketball players possess a higher bone mineral, because...
An interesting study published on Springer Link reveals a curiosity: Basketball players possess a higher bone mineral. The published article is titled: Basketball players possess a higher bone mineral density than matched non-athletes, swimming, soccer, and volleyball athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis, and below we can read an abstract: "Basketball athletes possess a higher bone mineral density (BMD) than matched non-athletes and swimming, soccer, and volleyball athletes.
Differences appear to be exacerbated with continued training and competition beyond adolescence. The greater BMD in basketball athletes compared to non-athletes , swimming, and soccer athletes is more pronounced in males than females.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine differences in total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) between basketball athletes, non-athletes, and athletes competing in swimming, soccer, and volleyball, considering age and sex.
Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, and Science Direct were searched. Included studies consisted of basketball players and at least one group of non-athletes, swimming, soccer, or volleyball athletes. BMD data were meta-analyzed.
Cohen's d effect sizes [95% confidence intervals (CI)] were interpreted as: trivial ≤ 0.20, small = 0.20-0.59, moderate = 0.60-1.19, large = 1.20-1.99, and very large ≥ 2.00. Results: Basketball athletes exhibited significantly (p <0.05) higher BMD compared to non-athletes (small-moderate effect in total-body: d = 1.06, CI 0.55, 1.56; spine: d = 0.67, CI 0.40, 0.93; lumbar spine : d = 0.96, CI 0.57, 1.35; upper limbs: d = 0.70, CI 0.29, 1.10; lower limbs: d = 1.14, CI 0.60, 1.68; pelvis: d = 1.16, CI 0.05, 2.26; trunk: d = 1.00 , CI 0.65, 1.35; and femoral neck: d = 0.57, CI 0.16, 0.99), swimming athletes (moderate-very large effect in total-body: d = 1.33, CI 0.59, 2.08; spine: d = 1.04, CI 0.60 , 1.48; upper limbs: d = 1.19, CI 0.16, 2.22; lower limbs: d = 2.76, CI 1.45, 4.06; pelvis d = 1.72, CI 0.63, 2.81; and trunk: d = 1.61, CI 1.19, 2.04), soccer athletes (small effect in total-body: d = 0.58, CI 0.18, 0.97), and volleyball athletes (small effect in total-body: d = 0.32, CI 0.00, 0.65; and pelvis: d = 0.48, CI 0.07, 0.88).
Differences in total and regional BMD between groups increased with age and appeared greater in males than in females. Conclusion: Basketball athletes exhibit a greater BMD compared to non-athletes, as well as athletes involved in swimming, soccer, and volleyball."