Type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90% of diabetes cases, with the remaining 10% mainly due to type 1 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes. Obesity is considered the leading cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease.
Type 2 diabetes is treated initially with increased exercise and changes in diet. If, through these measures, blood glucose levels are not adequately controlled, it may be necessary to administer drugs, such as metformin or insulin.
In patients who require insulin, there is usually a requirement to check blood sugar levels regularly. A relatively recently introduced blood glucose control technique refers to the Ambulatory Glucose Profile. Rates of diabetes have increased dramatically over the past few decades, in parallel with the rise in obesity.
In 2016, there were approximately 422 million people affected by the condition, compared to approximately 285 million in 2010 and 100 million in 1980. Long-term complications caused by too much glucose in the blood can include: heart disease, stroke, retinopathy diabetic, kidney failure, which may require dialysis, and poor blood circulation in the limbs, leading to amputations.
The acute complication of diabetic ketoacidosis, a hallmark of type 1 diabetes, is rare. However, non-ketotic hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic coma may occur.
Type-2 diabetes also afflicts many sportspeople
The study: Prevalence of Prediabetes and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Cricket Players: Multi-Cricket Clubs Cross Sectional Study, published on the Pakistan journal of medical sciences, explains:
"Sports activities are highly beneficial for improving the human health and reducing the risk of diseases.
This cross sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of prediabetes and Type-2 diabetes mellitus in cricket players compared to population based non-elite athlete control subjects.
The present matched cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period October 2019 to February 2020.
Initially, 700 volunteer males, (300) cricket players and (400) population based non-elite athlete control subjects were interviewed.
After socio-demographic and medical history, (200) nonsmoker cricket players and (300) nonsmoker control subjects were recruited.
The age of cricket players was 34 (32-37) years, weight 81 (76-84) kg, height 1.79 (1.74-1.84) meters, and body mass index (BMI) was 25.09 (23.66-26.76) kg / m2. The cricket players have been playing cricket for 4 (3-4) hours per day; 3.50 (3-4) days per week; for the total period of 24 (12-36) months.
American Diabetes Association (ADA) based criteria on Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) was used to investigate the prediabetes and Type-2 diabetes mellitus.
In cricket players, the prevalence of prediabetes was 23 (11.5%) and Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was 7 (3.5%) compared to population based matched non-elite athlete control subjects the prediabetes was 73 (24.34%) and T2DM was 63 (21.1%) (p = 0.001).
Among cricket players, there was a 6-folds decrease in T2DM compared to control subjects.
The cricket sports activities decrease the prevalence of prediabetes and Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among the cricket players compared to population based matched non-elite athlete control subjects.
The study findings demonstrate the urgent need for promoting sports activities, more cricket grounds as a physiological preventive strategy against the global growing diabetes epidemic."